brad brace contemporary culture scrapbook

September 30, 2006

Hair Trade Expands into Bangladesh

Filed under: bangladesh,global islands — admin @ 7:54 am

Hair traders from Arakan State have turned to Bangladesh markets to buy hair from local Bangladeshis for cheaper prices since hair has become a rare commodity in Arakan State, following the exporting of several tons of hair to China a few years back, a local trader reports.

“We are now purchasing several tons of hair from local Bangladesh traders with cheaper prices, but the quality is very poor and very different than hair from Burma,” said a hair trader.

In Bangladesh, Arakanese traders can by a kilogram of hair for TK 1,300, and a mung, which is 40 kilograms, for TK 5,200. Strands of hair are TK 2,700 per kilogram and TK 18,000 per mung.

In the hair markets of Rangoon and Mandalay, a viss, or 2.5 kilograms, is 60,000 kyat, while the highest quality hair is priced around 155,000 kyat. After purchase, hair traders from Burma send the hair to the Chinese markets of Yunnan Province.

A source says that in the past, Bangladesh traders had no experience in the hair trade, but they now know the business well – bringing hair from India and selling it to Burmese hair traders. There are now a few Bangladeshi traders involved in the business in the border area of Burma.

Many traders from Burma are buying hair from Bangladesh to export to China, but authorities from both Bangladesh and Burma collect large bribes at border crossings from the hair traders.

One trader said that in Arakan State a few years back, many young women were cutting their hair to sell to traders, but nowadays Arakanese hair is a rare commodity in the state.

“Although there has been no hair trade in Bangladesh before, it is now a lucrative business there, with many traders working in the hair trade,” said a trader.

September 29, 2006

Hundreds injured in Bangladesh protest

Filed under: bangladesh,global islands — admin @ 5:58 am

Riot police in Bangladesh have fired rubber bullets and sprayed tear gas at hundreds of demonstrators who attacked government offices in the capital Dhaka.

The demonstrators were protesting against two days of almost constant power outages.

Reports indicated about 200 protesters were injured in the clashes.

The violence broke out in Dhaka’s northern Mirpur district, where nearly a 1000 stone-throwing demonstrators rampaged through the streets.

Some Dhaka residents have been getting just two hours of electricity a day.

Public anger has been heightened because the power cuts have affected devotees trying to offer special evening prayers for the Islamic holy month of Ramadan.

September 27, 2006

Cinemas in Bangladesh, Pakistan squeezed by Bollywood

Filed under: bangladesh — admin @ 6:25 am


The traditional family trip to the local cinema has become little more than a nostalgic memory in Bangladesh and Pakistan, where locals prefer to stay home and watch banned Bollywood films on their television sets.

The fall from grace of local movie theatres, which are being converted into shopping malls both in Dhaka and Islamabad, is a testament to politics and piracy in the two traditional Muslim countries that border India from the East and the West.

India’s Hindi-language films, many of them slickly produced song-and-dance extravaganzas, are wildly popular in Pakistan and Bangladesh where Hindi is easily understood.

But they have been banned from the big screen in both countries due to government concern that scenes of actresses being romanced by men and dancing in somewhat revealing costumes might permeate their Muslim cultures in which female modesty is prized and intermingling among the sexes is taboo.

They (Indian films) simply go against our religion, culture and taste, said Abdur Rashid, a political scientist in Bangladesh. If we allow them to be watched freely then these films will pollute our society, he added.

India’s Hindi-language film industry in Mumbai, widely known as Bollywood, churns out hundreds of blockbuster films a year which are wildly popular in India and in neighboring countries where Bollywood stars are household names.

In contrast, the films made by the Bangladeshi and Pakistani movie industries and screened at local cinemas are seen as amateurish and dull compared to glamorous Bollywood.

The Big Screen:

The Kohsar cinema in the Pakistani capital, Islamabad, is a lonely place. The city’s last surviving movie theatre — a cavernous 700-seat auditorium — is virtually deserted.

It’s weird sitting here with just 11 people in such a big hall watching the movie, said Jahanzeb, a Pakistani driver who came to the cinema to watch a film with a friend on his day off.

Owner Mohammed Iqbal Mian is waiting for city hall approval to shut the Kohsar down and turn it into a shopping mall.

It’s like a white elephant for me. But since it’s my property and I am not pressed for money, I’m allowing it to go on because it provides employment for my workers, he said.

In Dhaka, housewife Shiri Akhtar’s childhood memories are filled with tragedy, comedy and drama from movies she grew up watching at her local movie cinema.

I almost never missed any new film that came to town, said Akhtar, 35.

But these days, the few cinemas that still operate in Dhaka are largely empty of clientele except for shady characters drawn by illicit screenings of Western films late at night showing banned scenes of couples kissing.

No one with good taste comes to cinema halls now. The young generation of Bangladeshis are increasingly turning to videos and satellite channels, said former cinema owner Abdul Halim.

In the past decade, some 500 cinemas out of an estimated 1,200 in Bangladesh have closed down. The situation is similar in Pakistan where fewer than 200 movie theatres are still operating compared to about 700 three decades ago.

Bangladeshi authorities banned Indian films at movie theatres in 1972, complaining that scenes of women singing and dancing were erotic and violated Islamic and Bengali traditions.

In Pakistan, Indian films were banned following a war between the neighbors in the mid-1960s.

Things got worse when military dictator Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq ushered in an era of Islamic conservatism and movie censorship after seizing power in a 1977 coup.

It was during Haq’s 11-year rule that the pirated film industry took off with smuggled Indian films coming in on video cassettes. These days they are smuggled in on even smaller DVDs.

Pirated Films, Cable TV:

The Pakistani government allowed the screening of Mughal-e-Azam and Taj Mahal, two historical Bollywood films, in an effort to boost cultural ties with India.

But the ban on Indian films in cinemas remains, although they are shown on cable television and pirated copies are easily available.

The biggest joke is that we have had this ban since the 60s but the latest Bollywood and Hollywood hits are freely available on fine-quality pirated prints, said Nadeem Mandviwalla, a cinema operator in Pakistan’s biggest city, Karachi.

The only future for dying movie theatres in both countries might be multiplex cinemas for affluent audiences.

The development of such complexes revived the movie theatre industries in India and Indonesia which went through a decline as audiences stayed away from decaying cinemas, sometimes infested by rats, preferring to stay home and watch TV.

A night out at the movies is popular again in both countries where modern multiplexes have sprung up to pamper movie goers with digital sound, air conditioning and soft, padded chairs.

But steep ticket prices at these complexes mean that a trip to the movies is unaffordable for many of the poor who used to pack the large, squalid cinemas for cheap outings.

As cinemas shut down in Bangladesh and Pakistan, the poor have nowhere to go for affordable entertainment and those that made their livings working in cinemas have no jobs.

The once-rich cinema owners are still rich because they reinvested their money carefully, said Abdul Barek, who used to sell tickets at a movie theatre in Dhaka. [But] I am unemployed and can hardly afford a meal a day.

September 26, 2006


Filed under: art,bangladesh,General,global islands — admin @ 6:38 am

A maintaining dynamic provides stability, while a modernizing dynamic forces change. We tend to be satisfied with a view of the world as a theatre of conflict between stability and change. Collecting a congeries of phenomena under the rubric of modernization, we project a future that will be purified in a certain direction. With only the craven desire for stability to overcome, the victory of modernization seems assured, and the world must progress toward the mechanized, the artificial, the commercial, the secular, the individual, and the international. There is, however, an oppositional force of self-conscious resistance on behalf of the bodily, the natural, the creative, the sacred, the collective, and the local. This countervailing force is underestimated because we have not yet learned, as we have with modernization, to gather its disparate signs under one label.
Oppositional actions do not connect directly; they align independently in negative response to modernization, the force also called, depending upon context, progress, development, secularization, industrialization, westernization, or colonialism. The goal is not maintenance; the orientation is progressive, but the dynammic is recursive. The mind scans the past to imagine the future. Consider the popularity of hobbies involving handicraft, the concern for environmental conservation and historic preservation, the profusion of civic festivals, the resurgence of ethnic identity, the escalation of nativism, and nationalism, the institution of reactionary values in politics and education, the convergence of alternative ideology and spiritual yearning in religious revival, the new age cults, in Christianity and Judaism, in Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam. In detail it is too much to encompass: The Mahabharata in ninety-three installments on Indian television, mosques destroyed in Bosnia and built in Afghanistan, powpows in Oklahoma, martial arts in Japan, new music in Colombia, glass painting in Poland and Romania, rosemaling in Norway and Wisconsin, political order in Iran, rebellion in Chechnya, separatism in Quebec, fundamentalism in Christianity, the Mao cult in China, Kwanzaa in Philadelphia, the Eid parade in Dhaka city, Saraswati Puja at Jagannath Hall. But take it all together, name it revitalization, and it is a power to balance modernization.

General Strike in Bangladesh

Filed under: bangladesh,global islands — admin @ 6:37 am

DHAKA, Bangladesh — Riot police used batons Thursday to break up hundreds of stone-throwing protesters in the Bangladesh capital, injuring at least 50 people, police and witnesses said.

The clashes occurred in central Dhaka during an opposition-sponsored general strike to demand reforms ahead of next year’s national election.

Police beat back the protesters when they started smashing the few vehicles that were on the streets defying the strike call, according to an Associated Press reporter at the scene.

Police also stopped a procession of lawmakers from the main opposition Awami League party, opposition lawmaker Abdus Shahid told reporters.

Stray clashes were reported in Dhaka’s Dhanmondi, Mirpur, Mohakhali and Gulistan areas where police used batons to disperse the protesters, a Dhaka Metropolitan Police official said on condition of anonymity in line with policy.

The nationwide dawn-to-dusk strike has been sponsored by an alliance of 14 opposition parties, led by former Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina.

Most of the injured, including women, were treated at private medical clinics.

Several homemade bombs exploded in parts of Dhaka, the ATN Bangla television reported. No injuries were reported.

Similar protests were also reported in more than 60 cities and towns including in Chittagong, where operations in the country’s main sea port were largely disrupted, port officials said. Chittagong is 216 kilometers (135 miles) southeast of the capital, Dhaka.

The protesters took to the streets despite rains spawned by storms that have killed at least 49 people and left hundreds missing along Bangladesh’s southern coast since Tuesday.

Authorities earlier said that 10,000 police were to be deployed to maintain peace in Dhaka, the capital city of 10 million people, a Dhaka Metropolitan Police statement said.

The strike shut down shops and schools and disrupted traffic in Dhaka. Commuters relied on tricycle rickshaws that strike organizers allowed to operate or on a few state-run buses that defied the protest.

The shutdown came a day after thousands of activists demanding electoral reforms disrupted rail and road transports across the country.

The opposition alliance has launched a campaign of street protests and general strikes to press for its demands, a common opposition tactic in Bangladesh.

The alliance has been demanding the removal of four election commissioners, saying they are biased toward Prime Minister Khaleda Zia’s four-party ruling coalition.

The commissioners have denied the allegation and refused to resign.

The alliance also wants to play a role in choosing the head of a caretaker administration that will conduct the elections after Zia constitutionally hands over power Oct. 28.

September 25, 2006

Coup leaders reaffirm loyalty to Thai King

Filed under: global islands,thailand — admin @ 7:12 am

BANGKOK — As soon as they had consolidated their power, Thailand’s military coup leaders made a symbolic kowtow to the man who had made it all possible: the country’s 78-year-old monarch.

More than anything else, it was the tacit alliance between the army generals and the long-ruling monarch, King Bhumibol Adulyadej, that allowed the coup plotters to secure their victory last week.

Three days after the tanks rolled into Bangkok, the generals paid homage to the King. In a nationally televised ceremony, the top coup leader, General Sonthi Boonyaratglin, stood before a shrine to the monarch. A royal decree was recited, confirming their alliance, and then the general kneeled and bowed before a portrait of the King.

In exchange for his support, the military has repeatedly signalled its loyalty to the King. Soldiers have tied yellow ribbons — the royal colour — onto their rifles and tanks. The official name of the military junta — the Council for Democratic Reform under Constitutional Monarchy — is a further bow to the dominance of the world’s longest-reigning monarch.

In Bangkok yesterday, the military felt confident enough to withdraw 10 tanks from the Royal Plaza in the city centre, where they had been stationed since the coup. This week, the military will appoint an interim prime minister and finalize a new constitution.

In another gesture of allegiance to the King, the coup leaders threatened Saturday to take “immediate action” against any foreign journalist who writes anything that “may infringe” on the monarchy. The warning was apparently provoked by the military’s displeasure that some foreign reporters have mentioned the King’s role in political matters — a taboo subject.

King Bhumibol, who celebrated an extraordinary 60 years on the throne this spring, has often sided with coups and military regimes in the past. But he is so powerful and so revered that it is illegal and almost unthinkable to criticize him.

Publicity about him is unrelentingly positive. Laudatory reports about his activities are broadcast on every television channel at 8 p.m. every night, often showing Thais prostrating themselves before him. Cinema audiences are required to rise for the royal anthem before every movie, with his image on the screen.

Thailand banned a recent biography of the King by a U.S. journalist because the book was insufficiently respectful. Even the Amazon website’s page about the book is blocked by police censors, with a warning that reads: “Sorry, the website you are accessing has been closed by Royal Thai Police due to inappropriateness such as pornography, gambling or contain any information which is deemed to violate national security.”

The crime of lèse-majesté — insulting the dignity of the monarch — is taken extremely seriously, with violations punishable by up to 15 years in prison. A number of journalists, intellectuals and politicians have been charged with the offence, despite protests from international human-rights groups.

“Many people think the King is a god,” said Thanapol Eawsakul, publisher of a political magazine that saw one of its issues banned because it printed skeptical articles about the monarchy. “It’s not surprising, with the media making so much propaganda for him. Nobody criticizes him.”

Despite the ban, and despite a police attempt to prosecute Mr. Thanapol for “upsetting public order,” the issue about the monarchy sold out and was eventually reprinted with another 6,000 copies, although it was difficult for the publisher to find a printer.

“Many people want to know about the King,” Mr. Thanapol said. “There’s so much gossip, but no real information.”

In a typical village in northern Thailand, a street vendor says she sells about 10 framed portraits of the monarch on market day every week. Hundreds of villagers wear yellow shirts as a symbol of their love for him. “He is like a Buddha — the being that we respect the most,” said Amornrat Chantawit, a 35-year-old egg vendor. “It’s as if we are his children. He is like a father. We have to do what he says.”

A military officer agrees. “We would give our lives to protect the King,” he says. “The King is above everything else.” Even the supporters of Thaksin Shinawatra — the prime minister who was deposed by the coup — are quick to express obedience to the throne.

“Every time Thailand has a crisis, it is the King who will solve the problem,” said Surapong Tovijakchaikoon, a member of Mr. Thaksin’s political party. “Everyone respects the King’s decisions. All Thai people love the King.”

Why countries like Bangladesh remain poor

Filed under: bangladesh,global islands — admin @ 7:05 am

Mahfuz R. Chowdhury

ACCOMPLISHMENT of economic growth is the single most important goal of every nation. Economic growth refers to the ability of a nation to produce more goods and services and thereby raising the living standard of its people. But as one can see, not all nations of the world have fared well in their endeavours. Over the years some nations have achieved very high standards of living, while many others still continue to languish in poverty. Here is some factual information, which should give a better picture about the prevailing disparity in the world. According to the CIA World Fact Book, the annual per capita income of one-sixth of the world population in 2004 was more than $27,000, while two-thirds of them earned less than $7,000, and the earning of the lowest third hardly amounted to $1,500 per year. Nearly three billion people of the world live on less than $2.0 a day, and approximately one billion of them live on less than $1.0 a day. These one billion people in the lower income group are deprived of even clean drinking water let alone other necessities of life. Now the question is, why does there exist such an inequality?
One easy answer to the question may be the uneven distribution of world resources. Let’s face it, some countries are endowed with more natural resources than others. So logically that would make the people of those countries richer than the rest. But mere possession of resources does not guarantee economic growth. An abundance of natural resources could bring prosperity, but without industrialisation that prosperity would last as long as the resources last. Hence, industrialisation is considered to be the key to economic development because that is the surest way to increase the productive capacity of a nation. A nation’s GDP or per capita income of its people is measured by the market value of all goods and services it produces annually. It thus follows that in order for a nation to attain or retain its economic growth it must manage its resources efficiently and at the same time it must employ them in the modernisation of its production facilities.
The early economic growth achieved by the European and North American countries, for example, was helped by the spread of the industrial revolution that originated in England in the late eighteenth century. Ironically, lack of natural resources was not an impediment to economic growth. A number of countries, notably Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and Singapore, were later able to achieve their impressive economic growth by embarking on industrialisation, even though they had no or little natural resources of their own. But unfortunately most of the underdeveloped countries of the world are finding it very hard to come out of their economic doldrums. What’s holding them back? If progress is to depend on a country’s ability to overcome obstacles and to adapt in changing circumstances, then one needs to look into the historical background of these countries to understand the difficulties they face.
The biggest obstruction for these underdeveloped countries is poverty. Other critical challenges they confront, such as illiteracy or ill-health, are mainly attributable to poverty itself. Since success of a country’s industrialisation depends primarily on the education and health of its workers, poverty could be a serious drawback. To put it another way, without having met the basic human requirements of food, clothing and shelter other challenges could not be effectively addressed. The roots of poverty in most underdeveloped countries could be traced to the era of colonial rule. Many years of neglect and oppression by the colonial powers have created such a negative impact in these countries that they find themselves in an extremely serious deadlock from which they find it difficult to escape.
For removing or reducing the impact of poverty in these countries, what is then needed is a revolutionary change both socially and culturally. But the problem is that this kind of change does not come easily in a traditional society where most people are illiterates. To bring about this kind of change it would require great sacrifice and a very intelligent political guidance. Without having achieved such a change, it is not possible for a nation to turn its situation around. In other words, appropriate political changes are required in these countries before their economy could be improved. Those countries, such as India, Malaysia, Brazil and Mexico that have succeeded in making the changes and adopted policies to modernise their production facilities are making progress. But, as evidence clearly points out, quite a number of South Asian, African and Latin American countries, after so many years of political freedom from their colonial rules, have yet to implement such changes. As a result, these countries’ economies remained very depressed and their people seem hopelessly trapped in poverty. Until such time that the political leadership of these countries is prepared to implement the changes necessary, there will be no escape from their current predicament.
Bangladesh, with over 140 million people, is an impoverished country in South Asia and it embodies all of the above characteristics and difficulties of a developing country. What can we learn from the Bangladesh situation? First, let’s consider its historical background. It was once a prosperous region in the Indian sub-continent, and was considered to have a great potential. But then it had to serve as part of a British colony for almost 200 years, during which time it witnessed an enormous drain of its wealth to Britain. After the British left in 1947, it was victimised once again when it chose to join Pakistan. The worsening economic situation that followed compelled some to refer to its Pakistan era as the era of ‘the colony of a colony’. In any case, its people had to fight two wars of independence within a time span of just 24 years – first with the British and second with the Pakistanis.

Ramadan begins in Bangladesh on Monday

Filed under: bangladesh,global islands — admin @ 7:02 am

Dhaka, Sep 24 — The Muslim fasting month of Ramadan begins on Monday in Bangladesh, it was officially announced here today.
The month begins subject to the sighting of the new moon, which was not seen today in Muslim-majority Bangladesh.

Meanwhile, Hindus in the country are preparing for Durga Puja. Authorities have stepped up security to ensure a peaceful festival.

September 24, 2006

3 killed in Cox’s Bazar mud collapse

Filed under: bangladesh,global islands — admin @ 5:47 am

Three children of two families were killed and seven others injured in mudslide, triggered by depression-driven heavy rain in the last three days, at Ramu and offshore island Moheshkhali early Saturday.

The dead were identified as Riazuddin,4, and her sister Rezia Parveen,2, of Shikderpara village in Ramu upazila and Jahedul,5, of Jamaltara village in Moheshkhali upazila.

In Ramu upazila, chunks of mud collapsed on the foothill house of day-labourer Rezaul Karim at about 3am while they were fast asleep, killing his two children.

Rezaul, his wife Monjuara Begum, another son, Mizanur,7, and daughter Shamsurnahar,5, were also injured critically.

The injured were first taken to upazila health complex and later shifted to sadar hospital.

Meanwhile, another incident of mud collapse on the house of Shamsul Alam of Jamaltara village of Moheshkhali island at 2 am killed his son Jahedul on the spot.

Injured Shamsul Alam, his wife Khodeza and their three-year-old daughter were rushed to Moheshkhali hospital.

September 23, 2006

Forms of corruption in Bangladesh: Measures of control

Filed under: bangladesh,global islands — admin @ 6:18 am

CORRUPTION is talk of the town in Bangladesh now. It is not only a vice in Bangladesh but also in other countries of the world. But there are differences in the forms and results of corruption in different countries. A few specialists on corruption regard it as supportive to development. Corruption may have some positive sides; yet no one likes it.
Experts like Dobby, Boskof and Pindeliton say; “By corruption, we generally mean the behaviour of persons in responsible positions who betray the substantial trust normally assigned to those positions.” Renowned personality of Bangladesh Prof. Dr. Sirajul Islam says, “Corruption is one kind of crime but all crime is not corruption — abuse of power, opportunities, etc., is also related with corruption.”
Corruption is like a contagious disease. Man adopts different ways and policies to get established in life. Everyone tries to dominate in his own field — social or political sector. If there is no definite policy in regulating day to day life, man doesn’t hesitate to adopt any illegal means. Man needs a moral principle to lead his life. Man can gradually establish himself by following that moral principle. If there is no moral principle before a man, it becomes very easy for him to do any illegal thing. To do any unlawful thing that man adopts corrupt ways. Religious faith and moral values can keep a man free from corruption.
Corruption is taking place not only in Bangladesh but also in developed and other non-developed countries of the world. The nature and causes of corruption are almost similar everywhere. But there is difference in its forms in developed and underdeveloped countries. Its negative impact in a developed country is not as bad as it is in a developing one like ours. Ordinary people suffer a lot due to it in developing country like ours. But it is not the same in developed countries.
Corruption has gradually increased in this country after the independence. Politics is one of the notable sectors that corruption has seriously invaded. There is lack of transparency in the activities of political parties of Bangladesh. The condition reminds us one of the proverbs: “A person having no principle enters into politics”. It has become literally true in this country. Corruption is increasing here not only due to lack of transparency but also because of poor practice of democracy within the political parties. Grab power by winning votes on giving false hope to the people is the philosophy of the political parties the use of politics for personal interest by government officials, taking advantage of bad politics to adopt unfair means are the signs of corruption. If this vice has seriously invaded its political arena, the country concerned will never turn into a developed one.
Negligence in administrative jobs, failure to perform the duties properly, receiving bribe and misappropriation of government money are also the signs of corruption. Poor salary of government officials, discrimination in promotion, absence of appreciation for honesty and punishment for misdeeds also help increase in corruption and inefficiency in the administration.
Social corruption is being spread by social organisations. Lack of trust between family members, corruption in educational institutions and involvement in different anti-social activities by social organisations increase social corruption. Social fraternity is being hampered as the social organisations are becoming increasingly corrupt. Religious belief of the people of our country is very high. The Muslims, the Buddhists, the Christians and the Hindus along with some tribes are living together here. So a large number of saints, religious scholars and mosques, temples etc., are there in this country. For this, sometimes religions can be easily misused.
Different unlawful activities in the name of religion are same as anti-social activities. Business in the name of religion, cheating people using the cover of religion, using religion for personal and party interests are among corrupt practices under the garb of religion. To cheat one and use someone in own interests are instances of personal corruption. Receiving money from others in the name of giving jobs or freeing from danger is also corruption at individual level.
There are different reasons behind corruption in Bangladesh.
Shrewdness and corruption were spread by the British who were in our society as the colonialists. This sub-continent was ruled by them for a long period. Before independence of Bangladesh, corruption of the then West Pakistanis in the then East Pakistan helped increase corruption in the society. Corruption is still present in Bangladesh in the spheres of trade and commerce and construction of economic infrastructure and in the inclination to use politics for own interest.
Since independence, most of those who ruled the country were corrupt. The absence of honest, courageous leadership to guide a nation is the major cause of increase in corruption. The youths of the country cannot meaningfully participate in the development of the country for want of honest and dedicated leadership.
The political conditions and infrastructure positions of political parties of Bangladesh help in increasing corruption. Less meritorious people are actively involved in student politics and the quality of national politics has been deteriorating due to less participation of meritorious people in it. As a result, they have become corrupt in spite of leading the society. So corruption-free political parties are essentials for a fair administration.
Corruption has increased in the society due to inappropriate and inadequate application of law. There is no effective step to protest crime. No activities are there to protest and remove corruption in Bangladesh. It is not easy to take action against corrupt government officials. So they are being encouraged towards greater corruption.
One of the reasons for the increase of corruption in our country is that the newspapers and electronic media have failed to perform their duties accurately. Telecast of advertisements of different fake products, which are also put up in other media, helps spread corruption. Sometimes different obscene dramas and films are also shown in the media, which are also stimulate for increased corruption. On the other hand, media do not put up any programme against corruption. Corruption has increased due to a kind of passive positive attitude of media towards corruption.
There is no doubt that corruption is an immense problem. We all should try to control it. To control this spreading vice we may adopt some measures. Responsibility alone does not lie with the government for controlling corruption. Everyone should be conscious about its ill effects. Everyone should take oath that he or she would remain free from corruption.
All the political leaders and workers should promise to lead a corruption-free life. Because, self-correction is the first step for prevention of corruption.
Prevention of corruption should be included in the manifestoes of the political parties and this motto should form part of the a culture in regular activities of all political parties. It should be treated as a social disease. All the parties should try to increase awareness about the need for prevention of corruption by them and among them. Honest and sincere persons should be given the opportunity for providing leadership.
The examples of morality, social service, knowledge and wisdom of corruption-free men and women should be included in the curricula in all phases of education. Corruption is unfair and it is harmful to the society — this learning should be implanted in the mind of students. In this regard, religious education should be given priority.
Corruption-free administration is vital for eradication of corruption. If the administration is not free from this vice, it is not possible to eliminate it from the society. A good administration depends on the honesty and sincerity of the employees. So honest and sincere employees should be appointed to ensure corruption-free government. Effective measures should be taken to prevent their moral erosion. At the same time arrangement should be made to take legal and administrative actions against injustices and corruption to raise a good administration.
To prevent corruption we really need an efficient anti-corruption apparatus. It should be free from political influence and have opportunities to work independently. Officials in this apparatus should be appointed carefully. Otherwise, corruption will increase rather than decrease. Activities of recently formed Anti-Corruption Commission should be upgraded and made more effective. Everyone is disappointed with the limited activities of this body.
There is a proverb: “Necessity knows no law.” If the government employees cannot lead a normal happy life with their income, they may then adopt unfair means. So, wages should be consistent with market prices of daily necessities. If there is no want, people will not try to take shelter of corruption. Suitable remuneration could be an effective measure for control of corruption.
A social movement against corruption should be initiated with the help of all political, social and cultural organisations. Media also could help it by putting up programmes against corruption. This initiative should come from both public and private sectors. Media could play a vital role in this regard. We have seen in the past and at present also that whenever media — particularly Television channels telecast a few series of programmes on any anti-social actively, it can be discouraged and stopped.
An independent law department is essential for the prevention of corruption. Though initiatives have been taken for this, there is no positive result yet. Good governance could be ensured as well as corruption will decrease if those relate to courts and lawyers could perform their duties independently. But they must be honest and sincere in performing their jobs.
Indeed, we could proceed to build up a corruption-free society by utilising some serious research work on corruption by social researcher. For this we need a decision, an oath to the effect that each of us will never do any corruption and would not encourage or help others in doing it.

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